Climate Change and Sustainable Development
The major climate and environment related achievements in year 2015 include
- Paris Agreement which aims at keeping the rise in global temperatures well below 2°C,
- adoption of Sustainable Development Goals,
- Launching of International Solar Alliance
- and submission of the ambitious Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs).
Emissions from major countries
- According to an International Energy Agency (IEA) report 2015, the concentration of CO2 in 2014 was 40% higher than in the mid-1800s.
- Currently, energy sector is the largest contributor to GHG emissions globally.
- If historical CO2 emissions from 1970 to 2014 are considered, India with 39.0 Gt is way behind the top three emitters – the USA, the EU and China. For example, the USA’s emissions were around six times India’s.
- Even if historical levels are discounted and only present levels considered, both in terms of absolute and per capita emissions, India is way behind the three major CO2 emitters.
- In 2014, in terms of absolute emissions, China was at the top, while in terms of per capita emissions, the USA was at the top.
- India’s per capita emissions are among the lowest in the world.
- In terms of sectoral CO2 emissions from fuel combustion, electricity and heat production was the largest contributor for China, India, the EU and the USA, more so for China and India, followed by the manufacturing industry for India and China and the transport sector for the US and the EU.
- These compositional patterns reflect the different priorities of these countries.