Skill India Programme

  • Would skill the youth with an emphasis on employability and entrepreneur skills.
  • It will also provide training and support for traditional professions like welders, carpenters, cobblers, masons, blacksmiths and weavers etc that could boost manufacturing and capital goods industry.
  • Convergence of various schemes to attain this objective is also proposed.
  • What is the need of such programme?
  • India has the world’s youngest workforce with over 12 million new entrants in the labour market every year but it is woefully short on skills as only 2 per cent of the employees have any certified abilities.
  • This has meant that the country’s demographic dividend hasn’t materialized because industry is unable to find employable workers.
  • It’s a situation that could breed socio-economic unrest if youth remain unemployed and have no training avenues.

Government also proposed changes in the apprenticeship law (Apprentices (Amendment) Act, 2014) that governs the on-the-job training scheme to make it more ‘responsive to industry and youth


  • The national policy will provide clarity and coherence on how skill development efforts across the country can be aligned within the existing institutional arrangements.
  • This policy will link skills development to improved employability and productivity.
  • Bridging existing skill gaps, promoting industry engagement, operationalising a quality assurance framework, leverage technology and promoting greater opportunities for apprenticeship training
  • Equity is also a focus of the Policy, which targets skilling opportunities for socially/geographically marginalised and disadvantaged groups
  • Skill development and entrepreneurship programmes for women are a specific focus
  • In the entrepreneurship domain, the Policy seeks to educate and equip potential entrepreneurs, both within and outside the formal education system

It also seeks to connect entrepreneurs to mentors, incubators and credit markets, foster innovation and entrepreneurial culture, improve ease of doing business and promote a focus on social entrepreneurship

Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana

  • Aim: To provide skills training for the youth.
  • Implementing Ministry: Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (through the National Skill Development Corporation).
  • Coverage: 24 lakh persons.
  • Primary focus: Class 10 and 12 dropouts.
  • Initial Outlay: 1500 crore.
  • The Skill training would be based on the National Skill Qualification Framework (NSQF) and industry led standards
  • Under the scheme, a monetary reward is given to trainees on assessment and certification by third party assessment bodies. The average monetary reward is around Rs.8,000 per trainee.
  • The target for skill development  will also take into account the demands from various other flagship programs launched in recent times such as Make in India, Digital India, National Solar Mission and Swachh Bharat Abhiyan.
  • The PMKVY, will primarily focus on the first time entrants to the labour market and target mainly drop outs from Class 10 and Class 12
  • Special emphasis has been given to recognition of prior learning.
  • Awareness building and mobilization efforts would be focused for attention. Mobilization would be done through skill melas organized at the local level with participation of the State Governments, Municipal Bodies, Pachayati Rai Institutions and community based organizations.
  • Skill training would be done on the basis of recent skill gap studies conducted by the NSDC for the period 2013-17.
  • For assessment of demand of Central Ministries/Departments/State Governments, industry and business would be consulted.

SETU (Self Employment and Talent Utilization) Scheme:

  • SETU will be a Techno-Financial, Incubation and Facilitation Programme to support all aspects of start up businesses, and other self-employment activities, particularly in technology-driven areas.
  • An amount of Rs.1000 crore is being set up initially in NITI Aayog for SETU.
  • It will involve setting up of incubation centres and enhance skill development.
  • It aims to create around 1,00,000 jobs through start ups.



Shramev Jayate/ (Pandit Deeldayal Upadhyay Shramev Jayate Karyakam)

  • It is aimed at creating conducive environment for industrial development and ease of doing business through introduction of several labour reforms.
  • This programme was launched to support the Make In India campaign
  • It targets to benefit atleast 4 crore labourers.
  • The five main schemes launched under Shramev Jayate are:
  • A dedicated Shram Suvidha Portal:That would allot Labour Identification Number (LIN) to nearly 6 lakhs units and allow them to file online compliance for 16 out of 44 labour laws
  • An all-new Random Inspection Scheme: Utilizing technology to eliminate human discretion in selection of units for Inspection, and uploading of Inspection Reports within 72 hours of inspection mandatory
  • Universal Account Number:Enables 4.17 crore employees to have their Provident Fund account portable, hassle-free and universally accessible
  • Apprentice Protsahan Yojana: Will support manufacturing units mainly and other establishments by reimbursing 50% of the stipend paid to apprentices during first two years of their training
  • Revamped Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana: Introducing a Smart Card for the workers in the unorganized sector seeded with details of two more social security schemes

Ajeevika- National Rural Livelihoods Mission

  • Swarnjayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY) was restructured as National Rural Livelihoods Mission and launched in June, 2011
  • It is also called Deen Dayal Antyodaya Yojana – NRLM
  • NRLM has now been renamed as Aajeevika
  • Ministry of Rural Development
  • This World Bank Supported Programme supports Rural BPL people by organizing them into SHG (Self Help Groups) and making them capable for self-employment by providing capacities such as information, knowledge, skills, tools, finance and collectivization.
  • Aajeevika will focus on setting up of federations of SHGs from village panchayat to district levels.
  • The goal of universal financial inclusion will be furthered through linking the SHGs with banks for securing credit.
  • Aajeevika envisages Capacity Building and Training of the community Institutions and the personnel engaged in programme implementation as well as other stakeholders like Bankers, PRI functionaries etc


MGNREGS- Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme

  • Ministry of Rural Development
  • Is the largestwork guarantee programme in the world, was enacted in 2005 with the primary objective of guaranteeing 100 days of wage employment per year to rural households.  
  • There is an emphasis on strengthening the process of decentralisation through giving a significant role to Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) in planning and implementing these works.
  • Main objective of the programme is to provide for the enhancement of livelihood security of the rural households by ensuring a legal right for atleast 100 days of unskilled wage employment to willing adult members.
  • At least one third beneficiaries have to be women.
  • In 2014, those tribals who have received land rights under the Forest Rights Act, 2006, were made eligible for additional 50 days of wage employment under the rural job scheme
  • Employment must be provided with 15 days of being demanded failing which an ‘unemployment allowance’ must be given.
  • Gram sabhas must recommend the works that are to be undertaken and at least 50% of the works must be executed by them
  • Funding is shared between the centre and the states.
  • There are three major items of expenditure – wages (for unskilled, semi-skilled and skilled labour), material and administrative costs.
  • The central government bears 100% of the cost of unskilled labour, 75% of the cost of semi-skilled and skilled labour, 75% of the cost of materials and 6% of the administrative costs.
  • Covers the entire country
  • MGNREGA envisages creation of durable and productive assets which would contribute greatly to the economic and ecological development of the rural areas.
  • At least one social audit in each Gram Panchayat every six months.

National Family Health Survey 2015-16



  • The first set of the Fourth National Family Health Survey Report was released in early 2016. It covers data for only 13 states.
  • What is the National Family Health Survey?
  • It is a large scale household sample survey conducted in a representative sample of households in India under the stewardship of Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
  • It is the main source of detailed health statistics in India.



  • The first round of NFHS Survey took place in 1992-93. Three surveys have been conducted so far, third being in 2005-06.
  • The International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) Mumbai, is the nodal agency for the survey.




States Covered:

  • The 13 states covered are Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Bihar, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Tripura, Uttarakhand and West Bengal plus Union Territories of Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry.


Infant Mortality

  • Infant Mortality has reduced in all the states and Union Territories covered. All states have below 51 deaths per thousand births.
  • But it varies from 10 in Andaman to 51 in Madhya Pradesh.


Sex Ratio and Female Literacy

  • Nine out of eleven states showed a declining sex ratio. These states are Goa, Meghalaya, UK, Tripura, TN, Sikkim, MP, Karnataka, Haryana, Bihar, and WB.
  • Only Uttarakhand saw its sex ratio rise. Meghalaya saw it stabilize.
  • Women’s literacy has risen in all these eleven states. It has increased by 12.5% in all these states since the last survey.
  • Goa tops the list in women’s literacy rate with 89% literacy rate.


Fertility Rate

  • Women are having fewer children – FR varies from 1.2 in Sikkim to 3.4 in Bihar.
  • All First Phase States/UTs except Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Meghalaya have either achieved or maintained replacement level of fertility


Institutional Deliveries

  • Children delivered in a medical institution under supervision increased by 32%.
  • In Bihar, it rose to three-fold, Haryana and MP also showed substantial increase.



  • Full immunization coverage among children age 12-23 months varies widely
  • 6 out of 10 children have received full immunization in 12 of the 15 States/ UTs.
  • Coverage of full immunization among children has increased substantially in the States of Bihar, MP, Goa, Sikkim, West Bengal and Meghalaya.



  • Fewer children under five years of age are now found to be stunted, showing intake of improved nutrition.
  • But in Bihar, MP and Meghalaya more than 40% of children are stunted.
  • Anaemia has also declined, but still remains widespread. More than half of children are anaemic in ten of the 15 States/UTs.
  • Each state with the exception of Puducherry showed a sharp rise in obesity levels in both men and women.


Water and Sanitation

  • Indian families in the First Phase households are now more inclined to use improved water and sanitation facilities.
  • Over two-thirds of households in every State/Union Territory have access to an improved source of drinking water.
  • More than 50% of households have access to improved sanitation facilities in all First Phase States/UTs except Bihar and MP.



  • Since the last survey the number of people suffering from hypertension is more in rural India than in Urban India.


Child Marriages

  • Child marriages saw a reduction since the last survey in the eleven states.
  • It has reduced by 13.17 % for females and 6.7% for males.


Awareness of HIV

  • Awareness about HIV/ AIDS among women has been reducing substantially.
  • The percentage of women with comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS in MP declined from 20.3% to 18.1%.
  • Similarly, in Bihar, it decreased from 11.7% to 10.1%.


Women’s Empowerment

  • Marked increase in the percentage of women in the age group of 15-49 years having a savings account that they use themselves.
  • Goa at 82.8% has the maximum number of women who manage their own finances. But Tamil Nadu has shown a 83% increase from previous survey.
  • Bihar tops the list of women owning property with women owning up to 58% property while West Bengal has the least number of women owning property.