NATIONAL FAMILY HEALTH SURVEY
- The first set of the Fourth National Family Health Survey Report was released in early 2016. It covers data for only 13 states.
- What is the National Family Health Survey?
- It is a large scale household sample survey conducted in a representative sample of households in India under the stewardship of Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
- It is the main source of detailed health statistics in India.
- The first round of NFHS Survey took place in 1992-93. Three surveys have been conducted so far, third being in 2005-06.
- The International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) Mumbai, is the nodal agency for the survey.
HIGHLIGHTS OF THE FOURTH SURVEY
- The 13 states covered are Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Bihar, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Tripura, Uttarakhand and West Bengal plus Union Territories of Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry.
- Infant Mortality has reduced in all the states and Union Territories covered. All states have below 51 deaths per thousand births.
- But it varies from 10 in Andaman to 51 in Madhya Pradesh.
Sex Ratio and Female Literacy
- Nine out of eleven states showed a declining sex ratio. These states are Goa, Meghalaya, UK, Tripura, TN, Sikkim, MP, Karnataka, Haryana, Bihar, and WB.
- Only Uttarakhand saw its sex ratio rise. Meghalaya saw it stabilize.
- Women’s literacy has risen in all these eleven states. It has increased by 12.5% in all these states since the last survey.
- Goa tops the list in women’s literacy rate with 89% literacy rate.
- Women are having fewer children – FR varies from 1.2 in Sikkim to 3.4 in Bihar.
- All First Phase States/UTs except Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Meghalaya have either achieved or maintained replacement level of fertility
- Children delivered in a medical institution under supervision increased by 32%.
- In Bihar, it rose to three-fold, Haryana and MP also showed substantial increase.
- Full immunization coverage among children age 12-23 months varies widely
- 6 out of 10 children have received full immunization in 12 of the 15 States/ UTs.
- Coverage of full immunization among children has increased substantially in the States of Bihar, MP, Goa, Sikkim, West Bengal and Meghalaya.
- Fewer children under five years of age are now found to be stunted, showing intake of improved nutrition.
- But in Bihar, MP and Meghalaya more than 40% of children are stunted.
- Anaemia has also declined, but still remains widespread. More than half of children are anaemic in ten of the 15 States/UTs.
- Each state with the exception of Puducherry showed a sharp rise in obesity levels in both men and women.
Water and Sanitation
- Indian families in the First Phase households are now more inclined to use improved water and sanitation facilities.
- Over two-thirds of households in every State/Union Territory have access to an improved source of drinking water.
- More than 50% of households have access to improved sanitation facilities in all First Phase States/UTs except Bihar and MP.
- Since the last survey the number of people suffering from hypertension is more in rural India than in Urban India.
- Child marriages saw a reduction since the last survey in the eleven states.
- It has reduced by 13.17 % for females and 6.7% for males.
Awareness of HIV
- Awareness about HIV/ AIDS among women has been reducing substantially.
- The percentage of women with comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS in MP declined from 20.3% to 18.1%.
- Similarly, in Bihar, it decreased from 11.7% to 10.1%.
- Marked increase in the percentage of women in the age group of 15-49 years having a savings account that they use themselves.
- Goa at 82.8% has the maximum number of women who manage their own finances. But Tamil Nadu has shown a 83% increase from previous survey.
- Bihar tops the list of women owning property with women owning up to 58% property while West Bengal has the least number of women owning property.